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1分析线粒体膜电位的方法,参考文献

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核心提示:Introduction The mitochondrial respiratory chain produces energy which is stored as an electrochemical graIntroduction

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2. PROTOCOL

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JC-1 staining

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2.1 Materials JC-1 fluorescent probe, plastic tubes for FACS analysis, complete medium, i.e. RPMI added with 10% fetal calf serum, PBS.

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2.2. Methodology 1. Harvest cells from experimental samples, bring total volume up to 1 mL of fresh complete medium.

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  1. Stain cell suspension with 2.5 mg/mL JC-1. Shake cell suspension until the dye is well dissolved, giving a uniform red-violet color. To do this, it is also possible to vortex vigorously the suspension immediately after the addition of the probe.

  2. Keep the samples in a dark place at room temperature for 15-20 minutes. The duration of the staining depends upon the cell type, but in our hands all the cells used responded quite well to the treatment. Wash twice centrifuging at 500 g for 5 min with a double volume of PBS.

  3. Resuspend in 0.3 mL of PBS, then analyze immediatly with the flow cytometer, typically equipped with a 488 nm argon laser. Set the value of photomultiplier detecting the signal in FL1 at about 390 V, and FL2 PMT at 320 V; FL1-FL2 compensation should be around 4.0%, while FL2-FL1 compensation around 10.6%. This is however the classical setting of the instrument we use in our laboratory, and it has to be taken into account that, as each instrument has a different sensitivity, a different setting can be necessary to obtain an optimal signal. Concerning instruments, the staining has been tested on several different apparatus such as an Excel, from Coulter , an Elite in Paris, some FACSCAN, a FACSTAR Plus and a FACSCalibur, from Becton Dickinson , a Biorad Brite and a Partec , and they work perfectly as well. Obviously, compensations have to be set in a different way.

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3. COMMENTARY

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3.1 Background information The technique of JC-1 staining has been developed with the intent to detect DY in intact, viable cells. For this purpose JC-1 acts as a marker of mitochondrial activity, since the formation of J-aggregates, which give red emission, is reversible. Cells with high DY are those forming J-aggregates, thus showing high red fluorescence. On the other hand, cells with low DY are those in which JC-1 maintains monomeric form, thus showing only green fluorescence. Normally green fluorescence of depolarized cells is a little bit higher than that of polarized ones simply because of the presence of a higher amount of JC-1 monomers.

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Appendix 1: Stock solution:

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JC-1 is dissolved in N,N’-dimethylformamide at the concentration of 2.5 mg/ml.

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It is stored at -20°C. Light sensitive.

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Appendix 2: Reagents

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18.Guilian D and LachmanL.Interleukin 1 stimulation of astroglial proliferation after graininjury.Science,1984;228:497

JC-1 Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA catalog No.: T-3168

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Note: colture medium, saline solutions and washing buffers are depending on the cell type which is used for the experimental procedure . For blood white cells, RPMI 1640 with 10% heat inactivated foetal calf serum, 100 IU/ml penicillin, 100 mg/ml streptomycin, 2 mM L-glutamine is normally used as complete colture medium.

20.Rivas A,et al.CD4 moleculesare associated with the antigen receptor complex on activated but not resting Tcells. j Immunol,1988;140(9):2912

20.Hart RP,et al.Substance P geneexpression is regulated by interleukin-1 in cultured sympathetic ganglia.JNeurosci Res ,1991;29:282

Appendix 3: Equipment

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21.Heagy W,et al.Opioid receptoragonists and Ca2+modulation by interleukin-1 in cultured sympatheticganglia.J Neurosci Res,1991;29:282

Flow Cabinet TC60 Gelaire
Flow Cytometer FACScan Becton Dickinson
Incubator CO2-AUTO-ZERO Heraeus
Centrifuge Minifuge RF Heraeus
Pipetman P20, P200, P1000 Gilson
Vortex Vibrofix VF1 Electronic Janke & Kunkel-Ika Labortechnik

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Appendix 4: Glossary

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Mitochondrial membrane potential is generated by mitochondrial electron transport chain, which drives a proton flow from matrix through inner mitochondrial membrane to cytoplasm, thus creating an electrochemical gradient. This gradient is in turn responsible for the formation of ATP molecules by F0-F1 ATP synthase. For this reason Dy is an important parameter for mitochondrial functionality and an indirect evidence of energy status of the cell.

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